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The Kingdom of Axum - Group 6 - Mr. Cameron's Global 1
The Kingdom of Axum: A Merchantry Nation

General History (Nicholas Theocharidis)
Axum also spelled Askum is the name of a powerful, urban civilization that took place in the Iron Age in what would know be Ethiopia.

The Rise of Axum:
Before the kingdom of Axum arose there was another kingdom in its place. This kingdom was named Kush. Kush remaineda powerful kingdom for 1,000 years but then a more powerful kingdom came in and conquered Kush. This is how the Kingdom of Axum arose.

The Success of Axum:
The highest point for Axum was the time of 325 to 360 AD under the ruler Ezana. Axum did most of . their expansion during that time period. The expansion was known as their most prime accomplishments. Ezana conquered more land and expanded their trade routes.

Geography:
Axum’s( as it also known) central location on the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean made it an ideal center of trade. Axum traded many necessities, but also sold some very exotic luxuries in exchange for things not found or made in Axum. This helped Axum become an international tradingpower. -map and geography by Cynthia Rodriguez

The Fall of Axum:
Axum's cultural and technological achievements made the kingdom last for 800 years. However the kingdom gradually declined and lead to an invasion. Axum was invaded by people who practiced the religion of Islam.


Foreign Relations (Cely Soto)
Trade:
The Kingdom of Axum - Group 6 - Mr. Cameron's Global 1
Axum's foreign relations were mainly based on their system of travel. The following are examples of Axum's foreign relations:

- Due to Axum's two main cities, Adulis, on the Red Sea, and the upland capital city of Axum, they had easy axcess to their trades routes.
- By the time 400A.D came Axum had a triangular trade network with connections in Africa, India, and Mediterranean world.
- From in Africa they recieved ivory, animal hides, and gold for the markets of Axum.
- From the coastal side of Africa they recieved iron, spices, and cotton cloth for the markets in Adulis.
- In the Adulis markets, the kingdom, they offered many goods from Indian and to other lands in the indian Ocean.
- There, the ships would go and collect goods from Europe and other countries along, around, and to the Mediterranean.
- The kingdom benefited from participating in a maritime trade route, which opened it up to the Roman Empire and India.
- The kingdom made contact with Indian merchants when the Indians would sail up the Red Sea in order to fulfill trading with the Roman Empire.
-Axum was one of the biggest trading powers of the ancient world because of the robust maritime trade they did with counties like India, Eygpt, Arabia, and the Roman Empire.

The Kingdom of Axum - Group 6 - Mr. Cameron's Global 1
Economy:
Axum's economy was based on trade.
- Due to the over amount of trade Axum was getting their economy went up.
- They traded things like spices, ivory, and goldto other countries such as the Roman Empire.
- The economy of the civilization reached a high peak in the 6th century AD.
- Though this success in the economy it later crashed.
- Due to the invasion of the muslims, the maritime trade was deeply affected.
- This being one of the reasons of the end of the Axum civilization.
- The Aksum coins were made of three different metals; copper, silver, and gold.
- Aksum was the first African civilization to produce a coinage.
- The first coins had pictures of kings and/or rulers and writings in greek.
Theology and Doctrine ( Harry Singh)

The Axum Empire eventually evolved to Christianity as a religion.However, the Axumites were not always a Christian nation. Traditionally, the Axumites believed in one god, by the name Mahrem. Mahrem was considered a war god and was adapted as the kingdom expanded its rule. The Axumites also believed that their king was a direct descendent of the god. Another major deity was Astar, also named Venus. He was the father of the god Mahrem. He was believed to have taken over the planet Venus, which was believed to have provided water to the people. The god Attar had taken on many forms. For example, he showed himself as the demon Ashtar. The Axumites believed that natural objects and all forces of nature possessed a soul. As a result, the Axumites performed sacrifices in order to keep the spirits of nature and their dead ancestors pleased. Sacrifices would often be performed in temples and would include both animal and human sacrifices.

However, once the reign of the king Ezana came, the empire changed its religion its to Christianity. While his mother ruled the kingdom, Ezana was educated by a Christian man who influenced him greatly. Once he became ruler, Ezana converted to Christianity and set it as the empire’s official religion.
He had the empire convert and follow the Orthodox tradition of Christianity. Ezana quoted “I will rule the people with righteousness and justice and will not oppress them, and may they preserve this Throne which I have set up for the Lord of Heaven.”
Until today, many Christians live in the same area.

( The following picture represent the Othodox Religion)
The Kingdom of Axum - Group 6 - Mr. Cameron's Global 1

Scientific Achievements (Saeed Rasool)
Technology:
Some people would say that the people during this time was advanced. They would say this because the people had an elaborate water wheel that give them a form of energy. The people of Axum were the first kingdom south of the Sahara to mints its own coins. These people are also known for terrence farming. This was a method of agriculture. Terrence farming is when steps are cut onto a hill to grow crops. People use this method when they need help growing crops on mountains and hills. Also they built many dams.
Weapons:
Some tombs were found and they revealed iron weapons. These iron weapons included tanged spear- heads.Iron knives made with bone or wood handles were also found.
Economy:
The Aksumites began producing coins around 270 C.E. This was under the rule of king Endubis. The Axum African civilization were the first to produce, not including african cities under the Roman Empire. The Aksumite coins were issued in Gold, Sliver, and Bronze. King Endubis used Roman weighing standards to issue his coins. The first coins used had Greek writing. One of the reason for using coins was to participate in the Greco- Roman trade of the Red Sea.
Architecture:
The Stelae were the most identifiable part of the Aksumite legacy. These stone towers were used to mark graves or represent a magnificent building. The largest of these towering obelisks measures 33 meters and is still standing today. The Stelae are stabilized by massive underground counter weights. The stones were often engraved with a pattern that symbolized the king's or nobles rank.Axum’s most famous architectures are the Pillars of Axum, a series ofhuge pillars placed around the kingdom, with stories inscribed on the sides. The Kingdom of Aksum once had large temples, but were replaced by richly decorated Christian temples.

The Kingdom of Axum - Group 6 - Mr. Cameron's Global 1The Kingdom of Axum - Group 6 - Mr. Cameron's Global 1

Jobs:Most of the Axumites worked as farmerswho brought mountain water to the working fields. The main objective of their life was trading. Other Aksumites worked as architects and builders. They built monuments, thrones, and several pillars.
Literature:
Ge’ez was the Aksumites’ language, and is spoken still today in Etheopia, Eritrea, and Israel.

Cultural Achievements (Brittney Salvador)

ARCHITECTURE: The earliest monumental architecture indicating the beginning of the Kingdom of Aksum was established near Bieta Giyorgis Hill, around 400BC. The first monumental building with rectangular rooms is Ona Nagast, a building that remained important throughout the Aksumite period. As well as monumental architecture being discovered, archeologists have also discovered elite tombs and artifacts. Original Aksumite burials were simple pit- graves covered with platforms and marked with pointed, stone pillars between two to three meters high. Later, as the Kingdom of Aksum advanced, the tombs became more elaborate. After Christianity was introduced around 350AD, monasteries and churches were included in Aksumite architecture. Most of the monumental architecture was constructed in the early 4th century AD under the rule of Ezana, the first monarch of Aksum to embrace Christianity. These monumental architectures included one hundred, stone pillars and stone towers. The stone pillars guarded cemeteries, and they weighed 517 tons and were about 70ft tall. The stone towers served to mark graves, and they measured 33 meters high and were stabilized by massive underground counter- weights. The stone was often engraved with a pattern or emblem signifying the king’s rank.
LITERATURE: The Kingdom of Aksum flourished until the 6th century AD, maintaining its trade connections, a high literacy rate, creating its own coins, and building monumental architecture. The Kingdom of Aksum is notable for a number of achievements, such as its own alphabet; the Ge’ ez alphabet.
Bibliography

http://wysinger.homestead.com/aksum.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Aksum#CultureBibliography
http://sharepoint.chiles.leon.k12.fl.us/mcneilt/Textbook%20for%20World%20History
Chapter%2008/Ch%208%20Sec%203.pdfhttp://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/KingdomOfAksum_TeachersNotes.pdf
http://archaeology.about.com/cs/africa/a/aksum.htm
http://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/KingdomOfAksum_TeachersNotes.pdf
http://benjamin-nguyen.blogspot.com/
http://www.slideshare.net/lacfnc06/the-kingdom-of-aksum
Textbook pg.352
http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-ancient-history/axum.html


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